EB is the only legally defensible drug test available on the commercial market for professional use that is low cost, non-invasive and non-intrusive. EB offers highly differentiating and immediate benefits for everyone involved in the process. For example:
The EB specimen collection procedure is not physically or psychologically invasive for the Donor. EB is a less intrusive and less embarrassing procedure, compared to directly observed urine specimen collection, as well as being a quicker, easier and more convenient collection process for everyone involved.
There is no requirement for a Donor to partially undress, remove bulky clothing or wash their hands. Sample provision is simple; the Donor has only to breath through a thin filter. Unlike other matrices, none of the Donor’s DNA information is present in the resulting EB sample used for analysis.
EB specimen sample collection is more hygienic and easier for the Collector to administer and monitor. It is very difficult for a Donor to tamper with, adulterate or switch the sample whilst under constant observation by the Collector. There is no requirement for the gender of the Collector to be matched with a Donor, as is the case with urine sampling.
In certain situations it could be possible for a Collector to monitor the sampling of multiple (and mixed gender) donors simultaneously. Also, Collectors do not have to wait for a Donor to be able to provide an EB sample. Unlike urine samples, a breath sample is always available and plentiful. Sample preparation and transportation are simplified and postage costs reduced (size and weight) compared to handling a liquid (urine).
Once the initial step of specimen extraction (filter wash) and analyte preparation is completed in the lab, the remainder of the EB analysis process is similar to that already established for other sample matrices and uses the existing installed base of analytical instrumentation in testing labs.
Since the detection window of EB closely mimics that of blood, the EB sample better represents the substances in the donor’s blood at the actual time of collection and allows for the detection of original intact drugs present in blood, rather than, as in the case of urine testing, the detection of their urinary phase I or phase II metabolites.
An EB sample is a relatively clean matrix compared to urine. This may make analysis quicker and easier, which saves on lab costs.
Testing Authorities/Governing Bodies:
EB offers considerable benefit in terms of cost saving and convenience for testing authorities since EB is quick and easy to use, whilst not requiring the provision of support resources such as privacy/toilet/wash/screening facilities or approved liquid refreshments. This can allow for more rapid and frequent testing as well as testing of a larger number of donors. For example, in the case of doping control in sports, more frequent testing of more athletes, may serve to increase the deterrence value of anti-doping programs, with minimum inconvenience to an athlete’s schedule. These practical considerations, together with the non-intrusive nature of the EB sampling process, means that it is strongly preferred by Donors.
Detection Times for exhaled breath closely mimic those for blood so correlate better with, and help to establish, impairment or enhancement. EB test results are based on existing lab analysis techniques, which are court admissible and legally defensible. Also, unlike all other sample matrices, the resulting EB specimen used for analysis in the lab, contains no DNA from the donor, which may serve to avoid potential civil rights/legal issues. EB samples can be stored for long periods before testing.
Anti-doping/Performance Enhancing Drugs Testing:
During urine specimen collection, there is a need to prepare the specimen (pour the liquid into two glass specimen containers) and carry out certain screening tests. For example; to measure temperature using a thermometer or test strip, to measure the concentration (specific gravity) using a handheld refractometer, to measure the pH using instant read-out strips. These measurements are made to verify each urine sample is genuine and ready to be sent to the lab.
However, in the case of EB, the same sampling device used to collect the specimen from the Donor, is also used to transport the specimen to the lab. The specimen remains held within the filter, which is enclosed within the housing, at all times. The housing is not opened by the Donor or Collector. The Collector is not required to process the specimen in any way, except to seal the unit and prepare it for packaging and transport to the testing lab for analysis, using the appropriate chain-of-custody protocol.
Since EB sample Collectors are not required to do any sample preparation, measurements or screening tests to verify that an EB specimen is genuine, suitable, sufficient or adequate, this serves to reduce overall collection costs, collection time, support resources and skills training, whilst reducing possible sources of contamination. Also, reducing procedural complexity can reduce the likelihood administrative errors and so decrease the risk of invalidating the legally defensible test result.